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Pyrrhonism[ edit ] Ataraxia is the Atarax original aim of Pyrrhonist practice. Pyrrhonists view ataraxia as necessary for bringing about eudaimonia happiness lauramerino.000webhostapp.com and then to ataraxia Epoché is a state of the intellect on account of which we neither deny nor affirm anything.
Ataraxia is an untroubled and tranquil condition of the soul.
We always say that as regards belief i. For when the Pyrrhonist set out to philosophize with the aim of assessing his phantasiai — that is, Atarax Original, of determining which are true and which are Atarax original so as to achieve ataraxia — he landed in a controversy between positions of equal strength, and, being unable to resolve it, he suspended judgment.
But while he was thus suspending judgment there followed by chance the sought-after ataraxia as regards belief.
For the person who believes that something is by nature good or bad is Atarax original upset; when he does not possess the things that seem to be good, he thinks he is being tormented by things that are by nature bad, Atarax Original, and he chases after the things he supposes to be good; then, when he gets these, he fails into Atarax original more torments because of irrational and immoderate exultation, and, fearing any change, he does Atarax original everything in order not to lose the things that seem to him good.
But the person who takes no position as to what is by nature good or bad neither avoids nor pursues intensely. As a result, Atarax Original, he achieves ataraxia. Indeed, what happened to the Pyrrhonist is just like what is told of Apelles the painter. For it is said that once upon a time, when he was painting a horse and wished to depict the horse’s froth, he Atarax original so completely that he gave up and threw his sponge at the picture — the sponge on which he used to wipe the paints from his brush — and that in striking the picture the sponge produced the desired effect.
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So, too, the Pyrrhonists were hoping to achieve ataraxia by resolving the anomaly of phenomena and noumenaand, Atarax original unable to do this, they suspended judgment. But then, by chance as it were, when they were suspending judgment the ataraxia followed, as a shadow follows the body.
We do not suppose, of course, that the Pyrrhonist is wholly untroubled, but we do say that he is troubled only by things unavoidable. For we agree that sometimes he is cold and thirsty and has various feelings like those. But even in such cases, Atarax Original, whereas ordinary people are affected by two circumstances — Atarax original by the pathé themselves and not less by its seeming that these conditions are by nature bad — the Pyrrhonist, by eliminating the additional belief that all these things are naturally bad, gets off more moderately here as well.
Because of this we say that as regards belief the Pyrrhonist’s goal is ataraxia, but in regard to things unavoidable it is having moderate pathé.
Epicureans argue that pleasure is the highest good, Atarax Original.
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They break pleasure down into two categories: Epicurus is said to have described joy as an example of a kinetic mental pleasure, Atarax Original. Physical katastematic pleasure comes in freedom from physical disturbances, such as simply being in the Atarax original of not being thirsty. When pleasure is present, Atarax Original, so long as it is uninterrupted, there is no pain either of body or of mind or of both together.
Instead, a life of virtue according to nature is the goal of life, Atarax Original. While closely related to ataraxia, the state of apatheia was the absence of unhealthy passions; a state obtained by the ideal Stoic sage. Apatheia describes the freedom from the disturbance of emotions, not tranquility of the mind.
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- They break pleasure down into two categories:
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Since the Stoic sage does not care about matters outside of himself and is not Atarax original to emotion because of his state of apatheia, Atarax Original, the Stoic sage would be unable to be disturbed by anything at all, meaning that he was in a stage of mental tranquility and thus was in the state of ataraxia.